What is Earth Science?

Earth Science as a high school level course is made up of several branches of science. In order to have a mastery of the subject, students must understand visual complex phenomena geared at explaining events that occur on the planet that we live on and the interaction of that planet within space and the universe. Earth Science is an extremely important course to take and understand because it allows us to see how the place we live functions and it also allows us to see how our events on this planet can affect it.

Branches of Earth Science

Earth Science is a broader term which encompasses four other areas: geology, meteorology, oceanography, and astronomy. A brief description of all these is discussed below:


The concept of geology comes from two Greek words: geo (earth) and ology (study). It is about the science that analyzes the inner and outer shape of the terrestrial globe. In this way, geology is responsible for the study of the materials that make up the globe and its mechanism of formation. It also focuses on the alterations that these materials have experienced since its inception and in the current state of its placement.


Meteorology is a Greek word for "meteors" which means high in the air, and "ology", which means study. This science studies the Earth's atmosphere and its most traditional and well-known aspects are weather and climatology. Climate is considered "average weather" which means normal conditions dominating a region, obtained from the ways of observations over a certain period.


Although the name makes it appear that Oceanography is the only study of the ocean, its object is much more comprehensive. This field of science studies the oceans and other aquatic environments like rivers, lakes, and seaboard areas.


Astronomy is the science that studies the Universe, from its origin and formation to the stars that compose it and the phenomena that transpire in it. It originated from the observation of the stars and their effect on the daily life of people. Astronomy is considered by many scholars the oldest of the sciences and the source of knowledge and questions for the emergence of other knowledge.