Adiabatic cooling occurs as rising air expands. The air expands because the pressure on it is decreasing.
Most surface water runoff occurs if the soil is bare, precipitation rate exceeds permeability rate, soil is saturated and slope of land is too great.

Notice that a wooded area's water runoff rate is about 0.12% while bare soil is 49% (a higher value means a greater amount of runoff)

Chemical weathering dominates in warm, humid climates.
Example of chemical weathering
Example of a warm & humid climate


Physical Weathering dominates in cold, humid climates (good for frost wedging).
Example of physical weathering (ice wedging)
Example of a cold & dry climate
Gravity is the force that drives erosion.

All types of mass wasting above are a direct result of gravity.

Streams are currently the number one agent of erosion in New York State.
Stream velocity depends on slope (gradient) and discharge.
Slope change from the high elevation (head) to the low elevation (mouth)
Discharge is the amount of water flowing in this picture
Velocity is greatest on the out side of meander bend.
Heavy, round and dense particle settle out first.

Above is a large glass cylinder containing a mixture of sediments of the same density and water.
The container was shaken. After a few minutes, this is how the sample looked.

Water sorts sediments by size vertically, with the biggest sentiments on the bottom only when sediments settle in still water.

<1-10> <11-20> <21-30> <31-40> <41-50> <51-60> <61-70> <71-80> < 81-90> <91-100> <Test Taking Tips>

Note: To access the practice regent’s questions, your browser must support pop-ups. Teachers: To link to this section of the site simply cut and paste the URL into a link onto your page ( Printable black and white copy of just the key terms without the illustrations.

© 2005-2011 Review Earth Science ™| All material published to this site is copyrighted to their respective owner(s).
All materials are to be loaded only from this site and cannot be uploaded and displayed on any other site, including not for profit and/or educational sites.